Jennifer Yip is a Ph.D. student at the University of Pennsylvania. She specializes in the history of modern China. Yip argues that the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945), after 1938, was not defined by large-scale military encounters. Instead it was a war of attrition in which the procurement and transportation of grain and other vital resources became the chief focus of the Japanese, communist, and Nationalist militaries.
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