Arash Azizi is a Ph.D. candidate at New York University. He specializes in the history of the modern Middle East. Azizi discusses communist internationalism, particularly between Iraq and Iran, in the 1980s. He underlines that communist internationalists argued for global unity despite conflicts that emerged between their nations and, significantly, eschewed anti-American rhetoric which was commonplace in other forms of communism. Azizi is also the author of, The Shadow Commander: Soleimani, the US, and Iran's Global Ambitions.